Dental Materials


{ Overview of dentistry and dental materials, Structure and properties of dental materials, Structure and properties of metal and alloys, Electrochemical properties of materials, Biological properties of dental materials.}


  1. ADA specifications.
  2. Mechanical bonding.
  3. Wetting and contact angle.
  4. Dimension of color.
  5. Stress and strain relation.
  6. Modulus of elasticity.
  7. Hardness.
  8. Define thermal expansion and add a note on coefficient of thermal expansion.
  9. Micro hardness tests.
  10. Macro hardness tests.
  11. Stress and strain curve.
  12. Toxicity tests.
  13. Biocompatibility of dental materials.
  14. Evaluation tests for biocompatibility of dental materials.
  15. Rheological properties.
  16. Thermophysical properties of dental materials.
  17. Galvanism.


  1. Flow and creep.
  2. Yield strength.
  3. Stress and strain relation.
  4. Hardness.
  5. Resilience.
  6. Hue, value and chroma.
  7. Contact angle.
  8. Wetting.
  9. Types of stresses.
  10. Tensile stress.
  11. Define stress and strain.
  12. Elasticity and stiffness.
  13. Thermal expansion.
  14. Proportional limit.
  15. Hardness test.
  16. Compressive strength.
  17. Brittleness and toughness.
  18. Brinnel hardness test.
  19. Ductility and Malleability.
  20. Adhesion and bonding.
  21. Chemical adhesion.
  22. Color parameters.
  23. Fusion temperature.
  24. Microleakage.
  25. Biocompatibility.


{Introduction to restorations, luting and pulp therapy, Cavity liners and varnish, Dental cements, Dental amalgam, Direct filling gold, Resin-based composite and bonding agents}


  1. Classify dental cements. Describe the composition, setting reaction and uses of zinc phosphate cement.
  2. Classify dental cements, Explain in detail about glass ionomer cements. Add a note on modified glass ionomer cement.
  3. Describe the composition, manipulation, properties setting reaction and uses if glass ionomer cement.
  4. Classify dental cements, write a note on composition, setting reaction and properties of zinc polycarboxylate cement.
  5. Enumerate various anterior restorative materials and describe the composition, manipulation of glass ionomer cement. Add a note in sandwich technique.
  6. Classify luting cements, state ideal requirements of luting cements. Discuss the composition, chemistry of setting, mechanism of adhesion, properties and uses of glass ionomer cements.
  7. State what are adhesive cements. Give the composition, manipulation and uses of glass ionomer cement type-1. Add a note on mechanism of adhesion of glass ionomer cement to the tooth structure.
  8. Define amalgam? Describe the classification, properties and manipulation of dental amalgam.
  9. Classify dental amalgam, Describe in detail about composition, properties, setting reactions and advantages of high copper containing silver amalgam alloys.
  10. Classify silver amalgam, Write a note in the manipulation of silver amalgam from proportioning to carving and finishing.
  11. Classification of amalgam alloys, Describe the composition, properties and advantages and disadvantages of amalgam alloys. Add a note in various stages of manipulation of amalgam alloys.
  12. Write the composition, properties and manipulation of admixed amalgam alloys.
  13. Write the types of silver amalgam alloys. Describe in detail about composition and setting reaction of high copper silver alloys.
  14. Define trituration and mention different methods of trituration for silver amalgam, Write the amalgamation reaction of various types of dental amalgam. Add a note on mercury hygiene.
  15. Explain direct filling gold, Discuss various types of direct filling gold and it’s manipulation.
  16. Write in detail about gold foil and it’s manipulation. Add a note on degassing procedures.
  17. Enumerate various types of direct filling gold, Write the degassing procedure. State briefly about in what forms gold are used in dentistry.
  18. Classify anterior esthetic restorative materials, Write in detail the composition, properties, manipulation and uses of hybrid composites.
  19. Classify composite restorative materials. Describe the various components of composite resins, briefly mention advantages and disadvantages of light cure composite resins.
  20. Define composites, classify them. Explain briefly about each material and add a note on posterior composites.
  21. Classify composite resins, Discuss the tooth color restorations. Enumerate the ideal requirements of a restorative materials.
  22. Describe the indication, advantages and disadvantages of tooth colored restorative materials. Briefly mention advantages and disadvantages of composite resins. SHORT ANSWERS:

Short Answers

  1. Define cavity varnish and liners. Write briefly about it’s uses and composition and applications.
  2. Classify bases and state briefly about varnishes.
  3. Ideal requirements of bases and cavity liners.
  4. Zinc phosphate cement.
  5. Glass ionomer cement.
  6. Zinc oxide eugenol cement.
  7. Manipulation of zinc phosphate cement.
  8. Resin modified glass ionomer cement.
  9. Zinc polycarboxylate cement.
  10. Classify dental cements.
  11. Calcium hydroxide and it’s uses.
  12. Metal modified glass ionomer cement.
  13. Pit and fissure sealants.
  14. Recent advances in glass ionomer cement.
  15. Define biocompatibility and write the pulpal response to glass ionomer cement.
  16. Compomers.
  17. Compare and contrast between high and low copper amalgam alloys.
  18. High copper amalgam alloys.
  19. Stoichiometric setting reaction of high copper amalgam. Add a note on gamma two (γ2) phase.
  20. Admixed dental amalgam alloy.
  21. Classify dental amalgam.
  22. Trituration of dental amalgam.
  23. Spherical amalgam alloys.
  24. Manipulation of amalgam alloys.
  25. Mercury toxicity.
  26. Delayed expansion.
  27. Unicompositional alloys.
  28. Eutectic and peritectic alloys.
  29. Annealing and it’s stages.
  30. Gold foil.
  31. Degassing and compaction procedures in direct filling gold.
  32. Mention types of direct filling gold.
  33. Desorption of direct filling gold.
  34. Mat gold.
  35. Condensation and polishing of gold foil.
  36. Classify direct gold restorative materials and mention it’s properties.
  37. Curing cycle in denture base resins.
  38. Microfilled composite resins.
  39. Enamel and dentin bonding agents.
  40. Dual cure resins.
  41. Hybrid composites.
  42. Classify composite resins and mention role of fillers in it.
  43. Light cure composite resins.
  44. Sandwich technique.
  45. Acid etch technique and it’s mechanism.
  46. Pit and fissure sealants.
  47. Physical properties of acrylic dental resins.


  1. Luting cements
  2. Thermal insulating base.
  3. Liners and bases.
  4. Cavity liners.
  5. Cavity varnish.
  6. Two applications and two uses of cavity liners and varnish.
  7. Cavity liners and bases.
  8. Cermet.
  9. Polycarboxylate cement uses.
  10. Composition of glass ionomer cements.
  11. Zinc oxide eugenol cement.
  12. Intermediate restorative cements.
  13. Adhesion.
  14. Frozen glass slab methods.
  15. Classify dental cements.
  16. Cement base.
  17. Pulp capping agents.
  18. Calcium hydroxide and mention four uses.
  19. Zinc phosphate cement.
  20. Adhesive cements.
  21. Polyacrylic acid.
  22. Pit and fissure sealants.
  23. Castable glass ceramics.
  24. Resin cements.
  25. EBA cements and it’s advantages.
  26. Trituration.
  27. Mercury toxicity.
  28. Admixed alloys.
  29. Eames techniques.
  30. Eutectic and peritectic alloys.
  31. Silver amalgam alloys.
  32. Gamma-2 phase.
  33. Gamma-1 phase.
  34. Burnishing of silver amalgam.
  35. Amalgamator.
  36. High copper alloys.
  37. Zinc free alloys.
  38. Delayed expansion.
  39. Premalgamated alloys.
  40. Gamma-2 phase setting reaction.
  41. Silver palladium alloys.
  42. Creep in amalgam.
  43. Gold foil.
  44. Degassing.
  45. Annealing and it’s stages.
  46. Desorption.
  47. Cohesive and non-cohesive gold.
  48. Electrolytic gold foil.
  49. Types of direct filling gold.
  50. Precipitated gold.
  51. Coupling agents in composite resins.
  52. Tissue conditioners.
  53. Acid etch technique.
  54. Sandwich technique.
  55. Bonding agents.
  56. Conventional composites.
  57. Microfilled composite resins.
  58. Etching.
  59. Light cure composite.
  60. Name fillers in dental materials.
  61. Dual cure resins.
  62. Hybrid composite.


{Endodontic medicaments and irrigants, Endodontic sealers and obturating materials}



{Rigid impression materials(impression compound and zoe paste),Elastic impression materials (agar,alginate),Elastomeric impression materials}


  1. Classify impression materials, write in detail about the composition, setting reaction and manipulation of impression compound.
  2. Classify impression materials, write the composition, setting reaction and factors affecting setting time of zinc oxide eugenol paste.
  3. Describe in detail about the composition, manipulation and properties of zinc oxide eugenol impression paste.
  4. Classify impression materials, write in detail about composition, setting reaction and manipulation of impression compound.
  5. Classify impression materials. Describe the composition, manipulation and setting mechanism of reversible hydrocolloids. Add a note on wet field techniques.
  6. Classify dental impression materials, write in detail about the composition, manipulation and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials.
  7. Classify impression materials, state briefly about their ideal requirements. Describe the composition, manipulation and advantage and disadvantages of irreversible hydrocolloids.
  8. Enumerate elastomeric impression materials. Describe the chemistry, composition, properties and uses of addition silicone elastomeric impression material.
  9. What are elastomers? Mention various elastomers which are used in dentistry. Discuss the composition, manipulation and properties of any elastomeric impression materials.
  10. Discuss various elastomeric impression materials and write in detail about addition silicone rubber base impression material.
  11. Classify elastomeric impression materials and describe in detail about condensation silicone.
  12. Classify impression materials. Discuss composition, setting reaction and precautions to be taken to minimize the failure in case of alginate hydrocolloids impression materials.


  1. Duplicating materials.
  2. Impression compound.
  3. Zinc oxide eugenol impression paste.
  4. Syneresis and imbibition.
  5. Wet field techniques.
  6. Irreversible impression materials.
  7. Silicone impression material.
  8. Manipulation of rubber base impression materials.
  9. Addition silicone impression material.
  10. Composition and setting reaction of polyether.
  11. Write advantages and disadvantages of elastomeric impression materials.
  12. Polyether impression compound.


  1. Syneresis and imbibition.
  2. Uses of agar agar.
  3. Peripheral tracing compound and it’s uses.
  4. Non-eugenol impression paste.
  5. Die hardener and die spacer.
  6. Fillers in impression material.
  7. Hysterisis and it’s significance.
  8. Dustless alginate.
  9. Tray adhesive.
  10. Drawbacks of alginate.
  11. Fusion temperature in impression compound.
  12. Modified alginate.
  13. Addition silicone.
  14. Name the types of rubber base impression material.
  15. Elastomers and it’s advantages and disadvantages.
  16. Polysulfide advantages and disadvantages.
  17. Polyether advantages and disadvantages.


{Model, cast and die materials, Gypsum products, Waxes in dentistry, Dental investments and refractory materials, Dental casting and metal fabrication procedures, Dental casting alloys, Abrasion and polishing, Metal joining and dental lasers, Additive manufacturing in dentistry}


  1. What are gypsum products, classify them and describe in detail about alpha calcium sulphate hemihydrate.
  2. What is calcining, discuss various methods of manufacturing plaster of paris? Describe the control of setting time and setting expansion of gypsum.
  3. Describe the various types of gypsum products used in dentistry, write in detail about setting reaction and factors which are affecting it’s dimensional stability of dental stone.
  4. Classify gypsum products. Describe in detail about dental plaster.
  5. Classify gypsum products and describe in detail about dental stone.
  6. Enumerate various gypsum products and write in detail about manufacturing and standardization of dental plaster and dental stone.
  7. Discuss the setting time of gypsum products, mention the various methods used for measuring setting time. State briefly about theories of setting time and disinfection of gypsum products.
  8. Classify the waxes used in dentistry and it’s ideal requirements. Write the composition, manipulation and properties of inlay waxes.
  9. Classify dental waxes, write in detail about inlay casting wax and explain the procedure used for obtaining the wax pattern for an inlay restoration.
  10. Mention the different waxes used in dentistry. Describe the composition, manipulation and uses of inlay casting wax.
  11. Describe the various steps in casting procedures of inlay and shrinkage porosity. Add a note on how do we avoid wax distortion.
  12. Classify investment materials and it’s ideal requirements. Describe in detail about gypsum bonded investment materials.
  13. Mention the various types of dental investment materials and write in detail about phosphate bonded investments.
  14. Classify investment materials, write the composition and uses of any one of them and discuss how will you compensate for casting shrinkage of dental casting alloy?
  15. Write in detail about casting procedure for a gold casting from preparation of the wax pattern on the die up to recovery of the casting from the mould.
  16. Describe the various steps of casting procedures and mention the possible errors that can happen during the procedure which can lead to defective castings. State briefly about casting machines.
  17. Describe in detail about casting defects.
  18. Enumerate the different types of abrasive and polishing agents? Discuss the procedure of polishing and finishing of acrylic resins and chrome cobalt alloy denture.
  19. Classify dental casting alloys. Write the mechanical properties of casting gold alloys. State briefly about heat treatments.
  20. Discuss the composition and physical properties of cr-co-ni base alloys. Write their uses in dentistry.


  1. Classify die materials and their ideal requirements.
  2. Epoxy resin dies.
  3. Refractory materials.
  4. Die stones.
  5. Hygroscopic setting expansion.
  6. Dental stone.
  7. Type-3 gypsum products.
  8. Dental plaster.
  9. Compare and contrast between dental stone and plaster of paris.
  10. Compare and contrast between alpha hemihydrate and beta hemihydrate.
  11. Measurement of setting time.
  12. Laminate technique.
  13. Mention various tests for measuring setting time.
  14. High strength and high expansion of type-4 dental stone.
  15. Inlay wax.
  16. Base plate wax.
  17. Composition and manipulation of inlay wax.
  18. Write the causes for defective casting.
  19. Wax distortion-causes and prevention.
  20. Gypsum bonded investments.
  21. Phosphate bonded investments.
  22. Classify investment materials and it’s ideal requirements.
  23. Back pressure porosity.
  24. Solidification defects in casting.
  25. Sprue formers.
  26. Localized shrinkage porosity.
  27. Compare and contrast between base metal and noble metal alloys.
  28. Casting shrinkage.
  29. Casting defects.
  30. Porosities in casting gold alloys.
  31. Casting procedures.
  32. Cobalt chromium alloys.
  33. Heat treatment of gold alloys.
  34. Nickel chromium alloys.
  35. Base metal alloys.
  36. Mention types and composition of gold alloys.
  37. Write the differences between alloys and casting alloys.
  38. Manufacturing of spherical silver alloy.
  39. Differences between abrasion and polishing.
  40. Write the factors affecting rate of abrasion.
  41. Abrasive and polishing agents.
  42. Classify dental burs and factors effecting the cutting efficiency of dental burs.
  43. Soldering and mention types of soldering techniques.
  44. Properties of dental solders.
  45. Welding and soldering.
  46. Flux and antiflux.
  47. Dental flux.
  48. Solders.
  49. Requirements of dental solders.
  50. Welding. 


  1. Electroformed dies.
  2. Die.
  3. Die material.
  4. Epoxy resin dies.
  5. Electrodeposition.
  6. Wet and dry strength.
  7. Plaster of Paris and it’s uses.
  8. Calcination.
  9. Measurement if setting time.
  10. Factors affecting setting time of gypsum products.
  11. Type-5 gypsum products.
  12. Separating media used in dentistry.
  13. Gilmore test.
  14. Accelerator of plaster of paris.
  15. Green strength of gypsum.
  16. Syneresis and imbibition.
  17. Sticky wax.
  18. Peripheral tracing compound uses.
  19. Uses of agar.
  20. Classify dental waxes.
  21. Distortion of inlay wax.
  22. Casting wax.
  23. Refractory materials.
  24. Advantages of gypsum bonded investments.
  25. Binders of casting investments.
  26. Thermal expansion of investment.
  27. Silica bonded investments.
  28. Pickling.
  29. Quenching.
  30. Sprue former.
  31. Casting ring liner.
  32. Die spacer.
  33. Microporosity.
  34. Back pressure porosity.
  35. Suck back porosity.
  36. Sandblasting.
  37. Spruing.
  38. Causes of surface roughness of gold alloys casting.
  39. Zones of Flame.
  40. Karat and Fineness of gold.
  41. Advantages of base metal casting alloys.
  42. Softening heat treatment.
  43. Noble and precious metals.
  44. Cobalt chromium alloys.
  45. Rouge.
  46. Abrasive agents.
  47. Polishing agents.
  48. Rake angle.
  49. Dental bur and it’s functions.
  50. Pumice.
  51. Define abrasion and polishing.
  52. Clearance angle and mention it’s importance.
  53. Dentrifice.
  54. Finishing and polishing.
  55. Flux and antiflux.
  56. Solders.
  57. Brazing.
  58. Flux.
  59. Various methods of melting the alloys.
  60. Welding.
  61. Soldering.
  62. Weld nugget.
  63. Compare and contrast between soldering and welding.
  64. Define soldering and welding.


{ Dental implant materials, wrought metals and alloys}


  1. Describe the uses if Wrought alloys in dentistry? Write the properties of stainless steel. State briefly about soldering and welding.
  2. Mention various base metal alloys and describe in detail about stainless steel.
  3. Enumerate the structure of alloys which are used for orthodontic wires? SHORT ANSWERS:
  4. Describe dental implant materials.
  5. Implant abutment.
  6. Stainless steel and it’s types.
  7. Stages in annealing.
  8. Stainless steel alloys.
  9. 18:8 stainless steel.
  10. Stabilization and sensitization of stainless steel.
  11. Properties of metal ceramic alloys.
  12. Beta titanium alloys and it’s uses.
  13. Compare and contrast between Wrought and cast alloys. VERY SHORTS:
  14. Implant materials.
  15. Stainless steel.
  16. Annealing.
  17. Uses of titanium.
  18. Nitinol.
  19. Define sensitization and stabilization.
  20. Ni-Ti orthodontic wires.
  21. Orthodontic wire properties.
  22. 18-8 stainless steel.
  23. Twinning.


{Dental ceramics, Denture resins and polymers, Maxillofacial prosthetic materials}


  1. Classify dental ceramics. Describe the composition of dental porcelain. Mention the methods of condensation of dental porcelain and it’s uses.
  2. Explain the composition of dental porcelain in detail. Add a note on it’s manipulation and glazing.
  3. Enumerate the various way of producing a ceramic restorations. Write the procedure of condensation and sintering of feldspathic porcelain.
  4. Classify metal ceramic alloys. Describe the ideal requirements of metal ceramic alloys, discuss the various factors which helps in bringing an effective bond between ceramics and metal. State briefly about firing of porcelain.
  5. Classify denture base resins and mention it’s ideal requirements. Discuss various modes of polymerization of denture base resins.
  6. Describe various denture base materials. Write in detail about stages in polymerization and requirements of denture base resins.
  7. Write the composition, stages of mixing and curing cycles of heat cure acrylic denture base resins.
  8. Classify denture base resins and explain in detail about the different methods of curing.
  9. Enumerate the ideal requirements of denture base materials and describe their defects seen heat cure acrylic denture base resins.
  10. Describe in detail about physical and chemical changes during polymerization of acrylic resins.
  11. Classify denture base resin material. Write in detail about compression moulding technique.
  12. State the ideal requirements of denture base materials. Write the differences between poly methyl methacrylate resins with base materials.
  13. Describe in brief about requisite for dental resins and write their composition, manipulation and processing if heat cure acrylic resins.
  14. Define soft liners? Describe the composition and properties and mention uses of tissue conditioner.
  15. Classify denture base resins. Describe their properties, manipulation and advantage and disadvantages.
  16. Classify denture base materials. Write the causes of porosities in acrylic denture base resins.


  1. Classify dental porcelain and mention it’s composition and uses.
  2. Firing of porcelain.

3.write the various methods of condensation and stages of dental porcelain restoration.

  1. Strengthening of dental porcelain.
  2. Glazing of ceramics.
  3. Porcelain bonded to metal.
  4. Doctor castable ceramic.

8 . Aluminous porcelain.

  1. Condensation of dental porcelain.
  2. Dental porcelain.
  3. Heat cure acrylic resins.
  4. Steps in polymerization.
  5. Porosities in acrylic resins.
  6. Curing cycles for heat cure acrylic resins.
  7. Copolymerization.
  8. Tissue conditioner.
  9. Denture reliners.
  10. Compare and contrast between heat cure and self cure acrylic resins.
  11. Injection molding technique.
  12. Composition of heat cure and self cure acrylic resins.
  13. Separating media.
  14. Manipulation of heat cure resins.
  15. Hybrid composite resins.
  16. Soft liners.
  17. Curing cycles.
  18. Physical stages in mixing of heat cure acrylic resins.
  19. Cross linking agents.
  20. Plasticizers.
  21. Addition polymerization.


  1. Classify dental porcelain.
  2. Role of feldspar in porcelain.
  3. Dicor.
  4. Castable ceramics and it’s advantages.
  5. Porcelain denture teeth.
  6. Composition of feldspathic porcelain.
  7. Porcelain shrinkage.
  8. Composition and uses of dental porcelain.
  9. Glazing and it’s uses.
  10. Requirements of metal for metal ceramics.
  11. Advantages of dental porcelain.
  12. Compare porcelain and acrylic teeth.
  13. Glaze and it’s types.
  14. Strengthening of dental porcelain.
  15. Firing of dental porcelain.
  16. Baking stages in dental porcelain.
  17. Vaccum fired porcelains.
  18. Core ceramics.
  19. Overglaze.
  20. Role of feldspar in porcelain.
  21. Crazing in acrylic resins.
  22. Porosities in acrylic resins and it’s causes.
  23. Advantages of metal denture.
  24. Tissue conditioner.
  25. Uses of soft liners.
  26. Separating media and it’s uses.
  27. Various stages of polymerization.
  28. Curing cycle.
  29. Uses of acrylic resins.
  30. Activator and initiator in cold cure acrylic resins.
  31. Cross linking.
  32. Condensation polymerization.
  33. Injection moulding techniques.
  34. Tin foil substitutes.
  35. Mention stages of monomer polymer reaction.
  36. Compression moulding technique.
  37. Denture cleansers.
  38. Denture reliners.
  39. Rebasing and relining.
  40. Maxillofacial prosthesis material.



  1. Write the composition, manufacturing process of dental stone plaster, dental alloy for Ag filling materials and dental investments. SHORT ANSWERS:
  2. Gutta percha.
  3. Classify copolymers.
  4. Osseointegration.


  1. Separating media functions.
  2. Sodium alginate solution.
  3. Gutta percha.
  4. Tissue conditioner.
  5. Percolation.
  6. Polyurethane polymer.
  7. Thermal conductivity.
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