- Name the mucopolysaccharides andtheir what is their significance
- What are homopolysaccharides examplecomposition and function
- Describe the Structure and biomedicalimportance of disaccharides
- What are Polysaccharides
- Classify carbohydrates
- Name any two disaccharides and theircomposition
- Hetropoly saccharides examplecomposition and function
- Name disaccharides and their sources
- Why sucrose is a nonreducing sugar?
- What are epimers.
- Why sucrose is called an invertsugar?
- Name the mucopolysaccharides Mentionthe importance of hyaluronic acid
- What is milk sugar
- What is cane sugar? Mention itscomposition
- What are anomers?Describe withexamples
- What is mutarotation?
- What are polysaccharides?Where arethey stored in the body?
- Composition and functions of twohomopolysaccharides
- Name the components of starch
- Explain digestions and absorption ofdiff dietary carbohydrate
- How does starch differ from glycogen?
- Name threeglycosaminoglycan’s(mucopolysaccharides)and mention their significance
- List four examples ofmucopolysacchrides
- What are compound lipids?Giveexamples along with theirfunctions
- Classify lipids with suitable examples
- Describe in detail about Essential fatty acids and its function
- Explain essential fatty acids Give examples and write their functions What is their dietary importance?
- Explain phospholipids Mention their functions Phospholipids structures and functions
- Add a note on cholesterol which is regarded as Good cholesterol
- Essential fatty acids(unsaturatedfatty acids)
- What are essential fatty acids?Giveexamples
- Name four functions of lipids
- In which form fats are stored inbody? Where is it stored?
- What are lecithins?Mention thephysiological importance of it List twofunctions of phospholipids and give two examples of phospholipids
- Why vegetable fats can be preservedfor longer period than animal fats?
- Compounds derived from cholesterol
- Good cholesterol
- Normal serum cholesterol level value
- Clinical manifestations ofhypercholesterolemia
- Function of cholesterol
- Describe in detail about the Structureof cholesterol
- Write biological importance ofcholesterol
PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS
- What are semiessential amino acids.give example
- Classify amino acids with example
- Name essential amino acids anddiscuss their functions
- Enzyme of lipid digestion
- Primary and secondary structure of proteins
- Describe in detail about Denaturationof proteins
- Classify proteins based on functionswith two examples for each. Add a note on isoelectric pH of proteins
- Classify proteins based on theirstructure
- Digestion and absorption of dietaryprotein
- What are conjugated proteins? Givethree examples
- Classify amino acids based onnutritional importance and givetwo examples for each
- Name the sulphur containing aminoacids
- Name essential amino acids
- Dietary sources of essential aminoacids
- Primary structure of protein
- Which are the general tests forprotein
- Describe in detail about Denaturationof proteins
- Define creatine clearance test?
- What are zwitterions?
- Name three conjugated proteins andtheir significance
- Name any four conjugated proteins
- Kwashirkor and marasmus
- Name some biologically activepeptides
1.Nucleotides and their function’s
- What are nucleosides and nucleotides?Give examples of each one
- Describe in detail about Pyrimidinebases
- Describe DNA structure
- Three differences between DNA and RNA
- Name different types of RNA and theirfunctions
- Watson and crick model of DNAstructure .
- Types of Rna .
- Transfer rna
- T rna
- Structure and functions of mRNA
- Classification of enzymes with oneexample for each class
- Name four factors which affect anenzyme catalyzed reaction Discuss any one in detail
- Describe the competitive inhibitionof enzymes with examplesand its clinical significance
- Discuss enzyme specificity Describemechanism-of enzyme action in detail
- Describe enzyme inhibition in detail
- Different types of enzyme inhibitionand their significance
- Competitive inhibition and non-competitiveinhibition
- Explain competitive inhibition? Howcompetitive inhibitors are used as pharmacological agents? Give two examples
- Features and examples for competitiveand feedback inhibition Clinicallyimportant enzymes and its significance
- Discuss about the clinical importanceof enzymes with their normal values and clinical significance
- Name five clinically important enzymesin plasma
- Indicate their normal values andclinical significance
- Clinically important transaminases
- Enzyme specific type and explainmechanism of enzyme action
- Enzyme changes in liver disease
- What is SGOT.What is normal range andclinical imp
- SGPT same
- Describe about Isoenzymes
- Explain isoenzymes Name them(anythree)and give their clinical importance
- Enzyme changes in liver disease
- Describe the term Km and Vmax
- Enzymes lose their biologicalactivity on boiling Explain
- What are proenzymes?Give two examplesMention their significance
- Metallic enzymes
- What is the Significance of alkalinephosphatase and acid phosphatase
- Discuss the clinical importance ofalkaline phosphatase
- Discuss the clinical importance ofacid phosphatase with its normal ranges
- What are isoenzymes?Explain with examples
- LDH isoenzyme
- Name two clinically importanttransaminases or amino transferases
- CPK(creatinine phosphokinase)
- Alkaline phosphatase
- Significance of estimation ofalkaline phosphatase in blood
- Describe the formation of active formof vitamin D Describe its biochemical(metabolic)functions,sources, dailyrequirement and deficiency manifestations of vitamin D
- Vitamin A deficiency
- Write thesources,requirement,functions and deficiencymanifestations of vitamin D
- Mechanism of action of vitamin D
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Vitamin K
- What role does the vitamin K takespart in coagulation of blood?
- Give a note on Ascorbic acid
- Diff types and features of beriberi
- Coenzyme of riboflavin and niacin
- Disease caused by dificiency ofvitb12and niacin
- Write the sources,daily requirementand functions of vitamin K
- Describe the functions of vitamin A
- Visual cycle(rhodopsin cycle)
- Describe the role of vitamin A invisual cycle
- Ascorbic acid-functions
- Functions and deficiency of ascorbicacid(vitamin C)
- Write in detail about Thiamine andits deficiency manifestation
- Biological functions of pyridoxine
- What are fat soluble vitamins?
- Name the vitamins necessary forneurological functions
- Name hemopoietic vitamins
- What are the Functions of vitamin A
- describe the features of vitamin Adeficiency
- which all are the active forms ofvitamin D?
- what are the Deficiencymanifestations of vitamin D
- Enumerate the two biochemicalfunctions of vitamin C Write a shortnote on scurvy
- Write two reactions in which niacinin used as a coenzyme What are thefeatures of niacin deficiency?
- Coenzyme functions of pyridoxine~
- What are the diseases caused bydeficiency of a Niacin b Vitamin B(Cobalamin)
- Functions of cyanocobalamin
- Pernicious anaemia
- Ascorbic acid deficiency
- describe the role of thiamine
- what are the Coenzymes of riboflavinand niacin
- Coenzymes of niacin and pyridoxine
- Coenzyme forms and deficiency ofniacin
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
- Describe the digestion and absorptionof dietary protein
- Digestion and absorption of triacylglycerols
- Pancreatic hormones
- What are Plasma proteins and itsfunctions
- What are the Functions of albumin
- Explain separation of plasma proteinby electrophoresis
- Diff type immunoglobulin and it’sfunctions
- Write in brief about immunoglobulin
- Mention four functions of plasmaproteins
- What is ceruloplasmin?
HEMOGLOBIN AND PORPHYRINS
- Write briefly on the structure andfunction of haemoglobin
- Name one abnormal Hb
- What is jaundice? What are thedifferent types?
- Respiratory chain
- Oxidative phosphorylation
- Vander bergh test
- Oxidative deamination
- Electron transport chain
- What is meant by substrate levelphosphorylation and give one example
- Describe about oxidativephosphorylation and give one example
- Name the various ATP sites in therespiratory chain
METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES
- Explain glycolysis Describe the stepsof glycolysis and its energetics Mention its significance
- Explain the steps of glycolysis in anactively exercising muscle Add a note on energetics
- Describe the anaerobic glycolysis inmuscle and compare the energetics
- Write the reactions of the citricacid cycle how is pyruvate converted to acetyl CoA?
- Outline the steps of TCA(citricacid)cycle and compute the energetics
- Describe the pathway by whichglycogen is synthesized and broken down in the body Add a note on theregulation ofthese pathways
- Describe glycogen synthesis in liverand its hormonal regulation Describeglycogenolysis,role of hormones in glycogenolysis and functional significanceof glycogen
- Describe glycogenesis and factorinfluencing blood sugar level
- Functional significance of glycogen
- How Glyco gen synthesized in the body
- Von geks disease
- Glycogen storage disease
- How many ATP molecules are producedin aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis
- Key enzyme of gluconeogenesis
- Cori cycle
- Describe the breakdown of glycogen inthe body (glycogenolysis)
- Explain gluconeogenesis and describeits pathway
- Describe the hexose monophosphateshunt(pentose phosphate)pathway What is the significance of this pathway?
- How is glycogen synthesized in thebody?
- Describe glycogenolysis andglycogenesis
- Give an account of glycogen storagediseases
- Significance of hexose monophosphateshunt
- Significance of glycolysis
- How many ATP molecules are producedin
a Aerobic glycolysis
b Anaerobic glycolysis
- Explain gluconeogenesis?Name fewgluconeogenic substances Name the keyenzymes of gluconeogenesis
- What is galactosemia?
- What is the defect in galactosemia?
- What is the significance of HMP shuntpathway?
METABOLISM OF LIPIDS
- Long Essays
- (Describe the beta-oxidation of fattyacids(palmitic acid)and its energetics
- Give an account of beta-oxidation offatty acids and give the energetics on oxidation of one molecule of palmiticacid
- Explain lipoproteins Classify lipoproteins and describe their functions
- Describe beta-oxidation of fatty acid
- Name the ketone bodies How are they formed? Mention two causes ofketosis
- Ketone bodies
- Briefly give the pathway ofketogenesis How is the presence ofketone bodies in urine detected?
- Compounds of biochemical importancederived from the
- Cholesterol degradation
- Lipoproteins and its functions
- Name the plasma lipoproteins Describethe functions of LDL
- and HDL in cholesterol transport
- Write the normal plasma cholesterollevel and add a note on atherosclerosis
- Name ketone bodies and two conditionsin which they are
- Name the ketone bodies Mention thetests used for detection of ketone bodies
- What is ketosis? List two causes ofketosis
- Compounds derived from cholesterol
- What is the normal serum cholesterolvalue?Write clinical
- manifestation ofhypercholesterolemia?
- Bile salts
- Bile acids
- Functions of bile salts
- Bile pigment-formation
- Classify lipoproteins and describethe function of any two
- What are the various fractions ofplasma lipoproteins?
- Fatty liver
- What is fatty liver and give examplefor lipotropic substances
METABOLISM OF AMINO ACIDS
- Describe urea cycle Discuss clinicalsignificance of blood urea level
- Describe urea cycle and mentioninborn errors associated in the cycle
- Describe urea cycle Name twoconditions that change blood and urine urea levels
- Synthesis of urea in the human body
- Describe the urea cycle
- How is creatin-P synthesized?
- Substances formed from tyrosine
- What is phenylketonuria and albinism?
- Give the enzyme and cofactorsnecessary for transamination reaction
- Give one example each fortransamination and deamination ofamino acids
- Write the reactions by which ammoniais formed
- Where is urea synthesized?What ismeant by uremia?
- Hyperammonemia type I
- Name the inborn errors of metabolismin phenylalanine pathwayand mention the enzyme which is missing in each case
- Describe phenylketonuria
- What is alkaptonuria?
- What is albinism?
- Tryptophan is necessary in our diet Otherwiseit will lead to
- deficiency manifestation Describe
- Active methionine
- Sulphur containing amino acids
- Whats is S-adenosyl methionine ?howis it formed and what is its importance?
- Describe the protein sparing action of carbohydrates
- Write about dietary sources,factors influencing absorption,biochemical functions and daily requirement of calcium
- Discuss the functions of calcium in human body Describe the homeostasis of blood calcium
- What is the normal serum calcium level?Add a note on its regulation
- Describe calcium metabolism with regulation
- What is the normal serum calcium level?Describe the hormonal regulation of serum calcium level
- Functions of calcium
- Regulation of serum calcium
- Calcium and phosphorus in the body
- Absorption and functions of iron Short Answers
- Name two trace elements and their biological role
- What is the normal serum calcium level? List two functions of calcium
- Four functions of calcium
- Hormones involved in calcium homeostasis
- Name the hormones which regulate serum calcium level
- Potassium balance
- Sources and absorption of iron
- Importance of iodine
- What are the functions of iodine and fluorine in humans?
- Describe the functions and deficiency of fluorine
- Write a brief note on importance of fluorine in nutrition
- Dental fluorosis
- What is the importance of fluoride in dentistry?
- Role of fluoride in prevention of dental caries
WATER,ELECTROLYTE AND ACID-BASE BALANCE
- What is the normal pH of the blood?Describethe various mechanisms by which it is regulated
- Describe the role of kidney inacid-base balance
- Describe creatinine clearance test
- Buffer systems in the blood
- Describe acidosis
- Metabolic acidosis
- Write the nutritional importance ofdietary fiber Describe brieflyabout balanced diet
- Balanced diet
- Explain basal metabolic rate(BMR) Listany four factors affecting BMR
- What is calorie?Mention the calorificvalue of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
- What is balanced diet?
- Explain BMR(basal metabolic rate)
- Explain SDA and its importance
- Discuss the nutritional importance ofdietary fiber Insulin, Glucose Homeostasis, and DiabetesMellitus
- Describe the regulation of bloodglucose Add a note on disorders of blood glucose regulation
- What is normal fasting blood glucose
- Regulation of blood glucose
- Oral glucose tolerance test
- Describe glucose tolerance test withreference to normal and
- mild glucose tolerance test curves
- What are the hormones which increasesthe blood sugar level? What isglycosuria?Mention the normal renal threshold for glucose
- Pathological constituents of urine Howwill you detect
- (biochemical test)blood in the urine?
- Significance of blood urea estimation
- Name three antioxidants
- Hydrolysis of starch in thelaboratory
- What will be the findings in FTM in acase of duodenal ulcer? What areabnormal constituents of urine?How will you detectblood in the urine?
- What is the normal serum level of UreaGlucoseCholesteroI
- Give the normal values of the following a Blood ureaSerum cholesterolSerum calciumSerum alkaline phosphatase
- Write the normal range of Blood urea,Blood sugar,Serum Calcium,Serum total protein.