{Biomolecules and the cell, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and amino acids, Nucleic acids and nucleotides, Enzymes, Vitamins}


1. Describe in detail about eukaryotic cell.
2. Classify carbohydrate with examples. Discuss their functions and name the mucopolysaccharides and its significance.
3. Describe what are compound lipids with their functions and explain the structure and functions of phospholipids.
4. Classify amino acids with their examples. Explain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and give a brief account on its biological importance.
5. Explain the structure of protein in detail.
6. Give an account of the structure and functions of nucleotides and explain the structure of DNA.
7. Explain the formation of active form of vitamin D and write its biochemical functions, sources, and daily requirement and deficiency manifestations of any one vitamin.
8. Describe the biochemical functions, sources, daily requirement and deficiency manifestations of vitamin D.

1. Compare eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
2. Nucleus.
3. Mitochondria.
4. Name homopolysaccharides with examples and explain it’s composition and functions.
5. Explain the Structure and biological importance of disaccharides.
6. Describe Polysaccharides.
7. Classify carbohydrates with examples.
8. Mutarotation.
9. Enumerate lipids with examples
10. Explain essential fatty acids and it’s functions.
11. Describe about essential fatty acids with examples and explain their functions and their dietary importance?
12. What are phospholipids and explain their functions.
13. Describe the structures and functions of Phospholipids.
14. Give an account on cholesterol.
15. What are semi essential amino acids explain it with it’s examples.
16. Classify amino acids with example.
17. Mention essential amino acids and discuss their functions.
18. Name the enzymes of lipid digestion.
19. Explain the primary and secondary structure of proteins.
20. Denaturation of proteins.
21. Enumerate proteins based on functions and write two examples for each.
22. Give a brief note on isoelectric pH of proteins.
23. Classify proteins based on their structure.
24. Describe digestion and absorption of dietary protein.
25. Define conjugated proteins? Give examples.
26. Nucleotides and Mention their function’s.
27. Transfer RNA.
28. Classify enzymes with examples.
29. Factors affecting an enzyme catalyzed reaction.
30. Competitive inhibition of enzymes and its clinical significance
31. Explain enzyme specificity. Discuss it’s mechanism of enzyme action.
32. Discuss enzyme inhibition.
33. Types of enzyme inhibition and their significance.
34. Competitive inhibition and non-competitive inhibition.
35. Describe competitive inhibition? Discuss how competitive inhibitors are used as pharmacological agents with examples.
36. Features of competitive and feedback inhibition with their examples.
37. Clinically important enzymes with their normal values and it’s significance.
38. Clinically important enzymes in plasma.
39. Clinically important transaminases.
40. Types of enzyme specific and write their mechanism of enzyme action.
41. Enzyme changes in liver disease.
42. Discuss SGOT with it’s normal range and clinical importance.
43. Describe in detail about Isoenzymes with their clinical importance.
44. Vitamin A deficiency.
45. Discuss the sources, requirement, mechanism of action, functions and deficiency manifestations of vitamin D.
46. Vitamin K.
47. Explain the role of vitamin K in coagulation of blood?
48. Add a note on Ascorbic acid.
49. Types and features of beriberi.
50. Write the coenzyme of riboflavin and niacin.
51. Name the disease caused by deficiency of vitamin B12 and niacin.
52. Mention the sources, daily requirement and functions of vitamin K.
53. State briefly about Provitamins.
54. Rhodopsin cycle.
55. Explain the role of vitamin A in visual cycle.
56. Explain in detail about Thiamine and discuss it’s deficiency manifestation.
57. Write the functions of pyridoxine.

Functions of nucleus.
1. Name disaccharides and their composition.
2. Hetropolysaccharides functions and it’s composition with examples.
3. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar.
4. Sphingomyelin.
5. Explain why sucrose is called an invert sugar?
6. Name the mucopolysaccharides.
7. Hyaluronic acid importance.
8. Milk sugar.
9. Lactose.
10. Cane sugar and it’s composition.
11. Anomers with examples.
12. Where are they polysaccharides stored in the body?
13. Composition and functions of homopolysaccharides.
14. Components of starch.
15. Digestions and absorption of different dietary carbohydrates.
16. Explain how does starch differ from glycogen?
17. Mention three glycosaminoglycan’s and their significance.
18. Four examples of mucopolysacchrides.
19. Two disaccharides and their composition.
20. Hetropolysaccharides example
21. Composition and functions of hetropolysaccharides.
22. Disaccharides sources.
23. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar.Explain?
24. Classify amino acids based on nutritional importance with examples.
25. Mention the sulphur containing aminoacids.
26. Essential amino acids.
27. Dietary sources of essential amino acids.
28. Primary structure of protein.
29. Mention the general tests for proteins.
30. Denaturation of proteins.
31. Creatine clearance test?
32. Explain zwitterions?
33. Conjugated proteins and their significance.
34. What are conjugated proteins?
35. Kwashiorkor and marasmus
36. Biologically active peptides.
37. Explain the term Km and Vmax.
38. Enzymes lose their biological activity on boiling.
39. Proenzymes with examples.
40. Proenzymes and their significance.
41. Metallic enzymes.
42. Explain the Significance of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase.
43. Clinical importance of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase with their normal ranges.
44. Isoenzymes with examples
45. LDH isoenzyme.
46. Clinically important transaminases or amino transferases.
47. Creatinine phosphokinase.
48. Alkaline phosphatase.
49. Estimation of alkaline phosphatase in blood.
50. Fat soluble vitamins.
51. What are the vitamins necessary for neurological functions?
52. Hemopoietic vitamins.
53. Functions of vitamin A.
54. Vitamin-A deficiency.
55. Active forms of vitamin-D?
56. Deficiency manifestations of vitamin-D.
57. Biochemical functions of vitamin C.
58. Scurvy.
59. Mention the reactions in which niacin is used as a coenzyme.
60. Niacin deficiency.
61. Coenzyme functions of pyridoxine.
62. Pellagra.
63. Name the diseases caused by deficiency Vitamin B.
64. Functions of cyanocobalamin.
65. Pernicious anaemia.
66. Deficiency of ascorbic acid.
67. Role of thiamine.
68. Mention the coenzymes of riboflavin and niacin.
69. Coenzymes of niacin and pyridoxine.
70. Coenzyme forms niacin.
71. Niacin deficiency.

{Digestion and absorption, Plasma proteins, Haemoglobin and porphyrins and Biological oxidation}

1. Explain in detail about digestion and absorption of proteins.
2. What are plasma proteins? Explain the separation and components of plasma protein and add a brief note on its characteristics and functions.
3. Explain in detail about high energy compound.
4. Describe electron transport chain with its components ad reactions and state briefly about oxidative phosphorylation.

1. Explain the digestion and absorption of dietary protein.
2. Digestion and absorption of triacylglycerol’s.
3. Abnormalities related to digestion and absorption.
4. Digestion of carbohydrates.
5. Plasma proteins and its functions.
6. Functions of albumin.
7. Describe the separation of plasma protein by electrophoresis.
8. Explain different type immunoglobulin’s and their functions.
9. Add a note on immunoglobulin and their classes.
10. Blood clotting.
11. Explain the structure and function of haemoglobin.
12. Bohr effect.
13. Biosynthesis of heme.
14. Describe any one abnormal Hemoglobin .
15. Degradation of heme to bile pigments.
16. Jaundice.
17. Respiratory chain (ETC).
18. Bioenergetics.
19. Redox potential.
20. Oxidative phosphorylation.


1. Pancreatic hormones.
2. Lactose intolerance.
3. Peptic ulcers.
4. Pancreatitis.
5. Three functions of plasma proteins.
6. Functions and clinical significance of albumin.
7. Haptoglobin.
8. CRP (C-reactive protein).
9. What is ceruloplasmin?
10. Classes of immunoglobulin’s.
11. Bence jones proteins.
12. Multiple myeloma.
13. Anticoagulants.
14. Abnormalities of clotting.
15. Jaundice and it’s types.
16. Porphyrins.
17. Porphyrias.


{Introduction to metabolism, Metabolism of carbohydrates, Metabolism of lipids, Metabolism of amino acids, Integration of metabolism, Metabolism of nucleotides and Mineral metabolism}

1. Describe glycolysis , explain the steps of glycolysis and its energetics with its significance.
2. Explain anaerobic glycolysis in muscle and add a note on its energetics.
3. Describe TCA cycle and the reactions of the citric acid cycle; explain how is pyruvate converted to acetyl CoA?
4. Outline the steps of TCA (citric acid) cycle and state briefly about the energetics of citric acid cycle.
5. Explain the pathway of glycogen synthesis from glucose in detail. Add a note on the regulation of these pathways.
6. Explain the glycogen synthesis in liver and its hormonal regulation. Describe glycogenolysis, role of hormones in glycogenolysis and functional significance of glycogen.
7. Describe glycogenesis and mention the factor’s influencing blood sugar level.
8. Explain gluconeogenesis and its pathway
9. Describe the HMP shunt (hexose monophosphate shunt) pathway and explain what is the significance of the pathway is?
10. Explain the fatty acid oxidation with their stages and add a note on its energetics.
11. Describe lipoproteins. Classify lipoproteins and their functions and add a note on disorders of plasma lipoproteins.
12. Explain urea cycle. Describe the regulation, metabolic disorders and clinical significance of blood urea.
13. Give outlines of urea cycle. Explain the inborn errors associated with the cycle and mention any conditions that change blood and urine urea levels.
14. Describe the dietary requirements, biological functions, sources, factors influencing absorption and inhibition of calcium. Add a note on normal serum calcium its regulation.
15. Explain the homeostasis of blood calcium and write the functions of calcium in human body. State briefly about diseases and their treatment.
16. What is plasma calcium? Explain the factors regulating plasma calcium level detail.
17. Describe biological functions, dietary requirements, sources, factors affecting absorption and inhibition of iron. Add a note on its clinical significance.

1. Glycolysis.
2. Citric acid cycle.
3. Regulation and energetics of citric acid cycle.
4. Gluconeogenesis.
5. Glycogenesis.
6. Glycogenolysis.
7. Cori cycle.
8. Regulation of glycogenesis and glycogenolysis.
9. Von gierke’s disease.
10. HMP Shunt.
11. Fatty acid oxidation.
12. Biosynthesis of fatty acids.
13. Synthesis of triacylglycerol.
14. Degradation of cholesterol.
15. Disorders of plasma lipoproteins.
16. Fatty liver.
17. Atherosclerosis.
18. Urea cycle.
19. Glycine.
20. Phenylketonuria.
21. Sulfur amino acids.
22. Branched chain amino acids.
23. Fate of carbon skeleton of amino acids.
24. Degradation of purine nucleotides.
25. Disorders of purine metabolism.
26. Teeth.
27. Absorption and functions of Iron.

1. Catabolism.
2. Anabolism.
3. Types of metabolic reactions.
4. Production of ATP in glycolysis.
5. Irreversible steps in glycolysis.
6. Events of Krebs cycle.
7. Energetics of citric acid cycle.
8. Gluconeogenesis and its stages.
9. Functions of glycogen.
10. Allosteric regulation.
11. Hormonal regulation of glycogen metabolism.
12. Hyperlipidaemia.
13. Hyperuricemia.
14. UDP-glucuronate importance.
15. Amino sugars.
16. Oxidation of palmitoyl CoA.
17. Energetics of beta oxidation.
18. Ketonuria.
19. Diabetic mellitus.
20. Diabetic ketoacidosis.
21. Name the stages involved in synthesis of cholesterol.
22. Hypercholesterolemia.
23. Body mass index.
24. Causes of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
25. Hypoglycaemia.
26. Conjugation reactions.
27. Phenylketonuria and its clinical manifestations.
28. Alkaptonuria.
29. Albinism.
30. Functions of serotonin.
31. Functions of melatonin.
32. Cystinuria.
33. Name the branched chain and essential amino acids.
34. Gout.
35. Name the factors promoting and inhibiting calcium absorption.
36. Calcium in teeth.
37. Ca: P ratio.
38. Hypocalcaemia.
39. Hypercalcemia.
40. Osteoporosis.
41. Rickets.
42. Dental caries.
43. Hypernatremia.
44. Hyponatremia.
45. Hypokalemia.
46. Hyperkalemia.
47. Hypochloremia.
48. Hyperchloremia.
49. Non-heme iron examples.
50. Hemosiderosis.
51. Hemochromatosis.
52. Copper deficiency.
53. Wilson’s disease.
54. Fluorosis.


{Hormones, Organ function tests, Water, electrolyte and acid-base balance, Tissue proteins and body fluids, Nutrition}


1. Define and classify hormones. Describe anterior pituitary hormones in detail.
2. Classify hormones. Write in detail about thyroid hormones.
3. Explain in detail about liver functioning tests in detail.
4. Describe renal functioning tests.

1. Classify hormones.
2. cAMP.
3. Hypothalamic hormones.
4. Posterior pituitary hormones.
5. Antidiuretic hormones (ADH).
6. Abnormalities of thyroid function.
7. Adrenocorticosteroids.
8. Catecholamines.
9. Androgens.
10. Estrogens.
11. Progesterone.
12. Menstrual cycle.
13. Gastrointestinal hormones.
14. Functions of liver.
15. Bilirubin and add a note on bilirubin in urine.
16. Van den bergh reaction.
17. Jaundice.
18. Tests to renal functions.
19. Clearance tests.
20. Urea clearance test.
21. Creatinine clearance test.
22. Gastric function tests.
23. Electrolyte balance and its regulation.
24. Maintenance of blood pH.
25. Acid base balance and its disorders.
26. Metabolic acidosis.
27. Respiratory acidosis.
28. Metabolic alkalosis
29. Define collagen. Describe its types, functions, structure of collagen.
30. Add a note on its abnormalities of collagen.
31. Contractile proteins.
32. Muscle proteins.
33. Cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) and describe its composition and functions.
34. Amniotic fluid.
35. Basal metabolic rate.
36. Functions of carbohydrates.
37. Essential fatty acids.
38. Protein energy malnutrition.
39. Recommended dietary allowances.

1. Classify hormones based on its mechanism of action.
2. Name the hormones based on its chemical nature.
3. Degradation of cAMP.
4. Name the hypothalamic hormones.
5. Anterior pituitary hormones and name them.
6. Posterior pituitary hormones and name them.
7. Name the thyroid hormones.
8. Glucocorticoids.
9. Mineralocorticoids.
10. Androgens and estrogens.
11. Goiter.
12. Hyperthyroidism.
13. Hypothyroidism.
14. Addison’s disease.
15. Cushing’s syndrome.
16. Mention the hormones of gonads.
17. Lipogenic effects.
18. Hypocholesterolemic effects.
19. Anabolic effect.
20. Effect of estrogen on bones.
21. Phases of menstrual cycle.
22. Osteoporosis.
23. Gastrin.
24. Secretin.
25. Cholecystokinin.
26. Name the liver functioning tests.
27. Clearance tests.
28. Urea clearance test.
29. Standard urea clearance.
30. Abnormalities of gastric functions.
31. Renal functioning tests.
32. Antidiuretic hormones.
33. Dehydration.
34. Overhydration.
35. Blood buffers.
36. Explain why urine pH is normally lower than blood pH.
37. Acidosis.
38. Acid base disorders.
39. Metabolic acidosis.
40. Respiratory acidosis.
41. Metabolic alkalosis.
42. Functions of collagen.
43. Elastin.
44. Fibrillin.
45. Fibronectin.
46. Proteoglycans.
47. Keratins.
48. Actin.
49. Myosin.
50. Prion diseases.
51. Alzheimer’s disease.
52. Milk and its composition.
53. Functions of CSF.
54. Amniotic fluid and mention its two functions.
55. Aqueous humor.
56. Mention 4 factors affecting BMR.
57. Carbohydrate functions.
58. Name essential fatty acids.
59. Deficiency of essential fatty acids.
60. Functions of proteins.
61. Kwashiorkor and its treatment.
62. Marasmus.

{DNA-Replication, recombination and repair, Transcription and translation, Regulation of gene expression, Recombinant DNA and biotechnology}

1. Describe in detail about Replication of DNA.
2. Explain in detail about transcription and add a note on reverse transcription.

1. DNA replication.
2. Recombination.
3. Damage and repair of DNA.
4. Mutations.
5. Repair of DNA.
6. Transcription in prokaryotes.
7. Messenger RNA.
8. Genetic code.
9. Protein biosynthesis.
10. Gene regulation.
11. Lac operon.
12. Gene expression.
13. DNA fingerprinting.
14. Southern blotting.
15. Northern blotting.
16. Dot- blotting.
17. Polymerase chain reaction.
18. Transgenic animals.

1. RNA primer.
2. DNA damage and its types.
3. Mutations and name its types.
4. Xeroderma pigmentosum.
5. Genome.
6. Transcriptome.
7. Proteome.
8. Reverse transcription.
9. Wobble hypothesis.
10. Name the stages of protein biosynthesis.
11. Name the steps involved in initiation of translation.
12. Structure of lac operon.
13. Degradation of mRNA.
14. Genetic engineering.
15. Name the methods of gene transfer.
16. Gene cloning strategies.
17. Types of blotting techniques.
18. Applications of southern blotting.
19. Western blotting.
20. Autoradiography and its applications.
21. PCR and its principle.
22. Applications of PCR.
23. PCR Techniques.
24. Applications of DNA fingerprinting.
25. Hepatitis B vaccine.


{Human genome project, Gene therapy, Bioinformatics, Metabolism of xenobiotic (detoxification), Prostaglandins and related compounds, Biological membranes and transport, Free radicals and antioxidants, Environmental Biochemistry, Insulin, glucose homeostasis and diabetes mellitus, Cancer, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) }

1. State briefly about human genome project.
2. In vivo gene therapy.
3. In vitro gene therapy.
4. Bioinformatics and its applications.
5. Detoxification and its mechanism.
6. Cytochrome P450 and its salient features.
7. Structure of prostaglandins.
8. Synthesis of prostaglandins.
9. Actions of prostaglandins.
10. Leukotrienes.
11. Fluid mosaic model.
12. Transport across membranes.
13. Transport systems.
14. Transport macromolecules.
15. Free radicals and its types.
16. Antioxidants and classify them.
17. Nutrient antioxidants.
18. Metabolic antioxidants.
19. Exposure to cold.
20. Exposure to heat.
21. Organic pollutants.
22. Inorganic pollutants.
23. Insulin- Structure, Metabolic effects and mechanism of action.
24. Glucagon and its effects.
25. Regulation of Blood glucose level.
26. Glucose homeostasis role in blood hormones.
27. Classify diabetes mellitus.
28. Glucose tolerance test.
29. Management of diabetes.
30. Chemical carcinogens.
31. Oncogenes and its mechanism of action.
32. Activation of proto-oncogenes to oncogenes.
33. Antioncogenes.
34. Tumor markers.
35. Growing tumor cells characteristics.
36. Metastasis.
37. Virology of HIV.
38. Transmission of HIV.
39. Abnormalities of AIDS.
40. Laboratory diagnosis and treatment of AIDS.

1. Name the principle methods used for mapping of genomes.
2. Vectors in gene therapy.
3. Gene therapy.
4. Techniques for ADA deficiency.
5. Applications of bioinformatics.
6. Detoxifications and its sites.
7. Phases of detoxification.
8. Role of cytochrome p450.
9. Mention salient features of cytochrome p450.
10. Inhibition of prostaglandins.
11. Explain why aspirin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis.
12. Degradation of prostaglandins.
13. Functions of prostaglandins.
14. Mention the types of transport across membranes.
15. Mention the transport systems.
16. Uniport system.
17. Symport system.
18. Antiport system.
19. Cotransport systems.
20. Endocytosis.
21. Exocytosis.
22. Types of free radicals.
23. Cataract.
24. Inflammatory diseases.
25. Respiratory diseases.
26. Carotenoids.
27. Selenium.
28. Heat stroke.
29. Ozone layer.
30. Lead.
31. Mercury.
32. Neurotoxins.
33. Goitrogens.
34. Insulin.
35. Homeostasis.
36. Glucagon.
37. Hyperglycemia.
38. Fasting blood glucose level.
39. Epinephrine.
40. Thyroxine.
41. Glucocorticoids.
42. Growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormones.
43. Glucose tolerance test.
44. Glycosuria.
45. Renal glycosuria.
46. Alimentary glycosuria.
47. Hypoglycemic drugs.
48. Management of insulin.
49. Carcinogens.
50. Ames assay.
51. DNA viruses.
52. RNA viruses.
53. Carcinogenic viruses.
54. Oncogenes.
55. Chromosomal translocation.
56. Gene amplification.
57. Point mutation.
58. Antioncogenes.
59. Transmission of HIV.
60. Treatment of AIDS.

{Introduction to bioorganic chemistry, Overview of biophysical chemistry, Tools of biochemistry, Immunology, Genetics}

1. Isomerism
2. Stereoisomerism.
3. Asymmetric carbon.
4. Buffers.
5. Colloidal state and its phases.
6. Classify colloids. Write properties and biological importance of colloids.
7. Osmosis and its applications.
8. Surface tension and its applications.
9. Isotopes.
10. Chromatography.
11. Gel filtration chromatography.
12. Colorimeter.
13. Electrophoresis.
14. Radioimmunoassay.
15. ELISA (Enzyme- linked immunosorbant assay)
16. Hybridoma technology.
17. Innate immunity.
18. T- lymphocytes.
19. Major histocompatibility complex.
20. Complement system.
21. Cytokines.
22. Autoimmune diseases and mechanism of autoimmunity.\
23. Organ Transplantation.
24. Patterns of inheritance.

1. Homocyclic rings.
2. Heterocyclic rings.
3. Isomerism.
4. Structural isomerism.
5. Geometrical isomerism.
6. Optical isomerism.
7. Chiral molecules.
8. Alkalies.
9. Ampholytes.
10. Dissociation of water.
11. Hydrogen ion concentration (pH).
12. Parts per million (PPM).
13. Molarity (M).
14. Molality.
15. Normality.
16. Phases of colloids.
17. Lyophobic.
18. Lyophilic.
19. Tyndal effect.
20. Crystalloids.
21. Colloidal state.
22. Diffusion and its applications.
23. Osmosis.
24. Osmotic pressure.
25. Donnan membrane equilibrium and its application.
26. Viscosity.
27. Surface tension.
28. Absorption.
29. Isotopes and its types.
30. Radioactive isotopes.
31. Stable isotopes.
32. Types of electrophoresis.
33. Ion exchange chromatography.
34. Paper electrophoresis.
35. Gel electrophoresis.
36. Ligands.
37. Immunoelectrophoresis.
38. Colorimeter.
39. ELISA and its applications.
40. Primary lymphoid organs.
41. Secondary lymphoid organs.
42. B lymphocytes.
43. Types of T lymphocytes.
44. T helper cells.
45. Cytokines.
46. Interleukine.
47. Autoimmune diseases.
48. Autograft.
49. Xenograft.
50. Cancers.
51. AIDS.
52. Monogenic disorders.
53. Polygenic disorders.
54. Autosomal dominant.
55. Autosomal recessive.
56. Sex chromosome.
57. Aneuploidy.
58. Eugenics.
59. Klinefelter’s syndrome.
60. Down’s syndrome.
61. Homozygous.
62. Heterozygous.
63. Gene.

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